cognitivism & connectivism
Cognitivism posits that learning happens when students process information, create original thoughts, and commit them to memory, with this process being as important as the final learning outcome.
Connectivism relies on the diversity of individuals and information available freely on the internet as a foundation for co-creating knowledge among learners.
The example of the Gold Rush game from my personal learning experiences was a great example of social cogntivism at work. My peers and I worked collaboratively to co-create knowledge about California history, geography, and geology, using the scaffolding provided by our teacher (the structure of the game, additional reading and guided discussion, etcetera) as guidance. Without that scaffolding, we would have had no idea what we were doing or what we were supposed to be learning; with it, she kept us in our Zone of Proximal Development where we could construct knowledge as we explored the many challenges (and rare benefits) of being part of the California Gold Rush.
Berkeley Graduate Division. (2019). Cognitive Constructivism. Retrieved from https://gsi.berkeley.edu/gsi-guide-contents/learning-theory-research/cognitive-constructivism/
Siemens, G. (2014, February 10). Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age. Retrieved from http://er.dut.ac.za/handle/123456789/69